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Types and risk factors
Types of kidney cancer and noncancerous kidney tumors
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. There are several types of renal cell cancer. Common types include:
Collecting duct RCC
Other kidney cancers we treat include:
Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma
Noncancerous kidney tumors that may need treatment include:
Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma
The most common risk factor for renal cell carcinoma is smoking. Some genetic syndromes also are associated with renal cell carcinoma. The most common is von Hippel-Lindau disease. This condition affects the capillaries of the brain, eyes and other parts of the body. If you have von Hippel-Lindau disease, you should get screened for kidney tumors.
Symptoms and diagnosis
How we diagnose a kidney tumor
You might not feel symptoms of kidney cancer or even know you have a tumor. Many kidney tumors do not cause symptoms until they grow quite large. Most kidney tumors are found during imaging tests for another condition.
Kidney tumors can cause:
Blood in your urine
Low back pain
Mass or lump on one side of your back
Pressure on one side of your back
Your doctor will use a few tests to determine whether you have a kidney tumor and check for signs of cancer. These tests include biopsies as well as blood, urine and imaging tests.
Kidney cancer staging
If you have a kidney cancer diagnosis, your doctor will check the cancer’s stage of development. A CT or MRI scan can show how a tumor is growing.
Kidney cancer stages include:
The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and has not spread beyond the kidney.
The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and has not spread beyond the kidney.
The tumor can be small or large. The cancer has spread to either one nearby lymph node, the fatty tissue around the kidney or the large veins leading from the kidney to the heart. The cancer has not spread to other lymph nodes or organs.
The cancer has spread into the fatty tissue that surrounds the kidney. The cancer is found in more than one lymph node near the kidney, in any lymph node not near the kidney or in other organs.
Treatments and research
Managing and treating kidney cancer
Your kidney cancer treatment might include a combination of systemic treatments (similar to chemotherapy), nutrition therapy, radiation and surgery.
If you have stage III or stage IV cancer, members of our medical and urologic oncology teams review your care. Our teams meet weekly to discuss the best approach for each patient with advanced kidney cancer.
Our treatment approaches focus on a personalized approach to treatment and may include:
Active surveillance: We monitor small kidney tumors for growth and changes.
Multimodal treatment: We provide surgery along with other treatments for advanced kidney cancer.
Complex surgery: We perform surgery for advanced kidney cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or blood vessels.
Your care team talks with you about your specific treatment options. These include:
Partial kidney removal (partial nephrectomy)
Complete kidney removal (radical nephrectomy)
Tumor ablation using microwave ablation or cryotherapy
Our kidney cancer team uses minimally invasive surgery or robotic-assisted surgery for kidney tumor removal and complete kidney removal. Your care team provides follow-up care to ensure your health after your surgery.
Improving your care with research
At UW Health, our kidney cancer team takes part in clinical trials and research. This gives you the option to try the newest treatments available. One of our kidney cancer clinical trials uses a combination of microwave ablation with radiation therapy. Learn more about our clinical trials.
To help you feel comfortable during your stay at the UW Carbone Cancer Center, we invite you to learn about our facility and the services we offer.
Meet our team
Specialty kidney cancer care
The kidney cancer team at UW Health includes experts in urologic oncology (surgery), medical oncology, alternative therapy, nutrition, radiation oncology and other experts to provide innovative and effective treatment.
Care close to home
The UW Carbone Cancer Center provides care throughout Wisconsin and Northern Illinois. Not all cancers will be treated at every location, however we will make every effort to connect you with care at a location convenient to you.
UW Carbone Cancer Center
- 600 Highland Ave. / Madison, WI
- Closed now
The University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center is a pioneer in cancer research and quality patient care. It is the only comprehensive cancer center in Wisconsin, as designated by the National Cancer Institute.View hours, services and more
1 S. Park ClinicHematology and Oncology Clinic
- 1 S. Park St. / Madison, WI
- (608) 287-2552
- Closed now
- View hours, services and more
SwedishAmerican Regional Cancer Center
- 3535 N Bell School Road / Rockford, IL
- (779) 696-9400
- Closed now
Patients here have convenient local access to UW Health cancer specialists in areas such as breast cancer, head-and-neck cancer, endocrine cancer, and thoracic surgical and abdominal surgical oncology.View hours, services and more
UW Cancer Center Johnson Creek
- 250 Doctors Ct. / Johnson Creek, WI
- (920) 699-3500
- Closed now
UW Cancer Center Johnson Creek offers the people of southeastern Wisconsin local access to leading-edge research and treatments offered by the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center in Madison.View hours, services and more
UW Cancer Center at ProHealth Care
- N16 W24131 Riverwood Drive / Waukesha, WI
- Open now
Partnered with the UW Carbone Cancer Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, UW Health Cancer Center at ProHealth Care offers world-class cancer care in a comforting setting close to home.View hours, services and more
UW Carbone Cancer Center
The experts at the UW Carbone Cancer Center intimately understand every type of cancer. We will get to know you and design a treatment plan that works for you and your family.