Anatomic Abnormalities for Kidney Stones

For Patients

If you suspect you have stones, visit your primary care provider or urologist.

If you've been diagnosed with stones and would like to be seen in the Metabolic Stone Clinic, please call (608) 263-4757.

The following conditions may contribute to an increased risk of forming kidney stones: 
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • Calyceal diverticulum
  • Horseshoe kidney: Horseshoe kidney is one of the more common birth defects, occurring in approximately one of every 400 births. Although it often goes unnoticed, it is associated with a higher risk of kidney disease and kidney stones. In individuals with normal anatomy, there are two separate kidneys, located in the back, which are protected by abdominal muscles and ribs. With a horseshoe kidney, the two kidneys are actually fused together, giving it a horseshoe-like appearance. Increased stone incidence in individuals with a horseshoe kidney is due mainly to its unusual blood supply, the problematic placement of the ureters into the kidney and the prevalence of urinary tract obstruction associated with horseshoe kidney.
  • Hydronephrotic renal pelvis or calices
  • Medullary sponge kidney (tubular ectasia): This is the most common anatomic abnormality seen in patients with calcium-containing stones.
  • Ureterocele
  • Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction
  • Uretheral stricture
  • Urinary tract obstruction: This condition can be congenital (such as in ureteropelvic junction obstruction or horseshoe kidney) or acquired (such as in benign prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture). Obstruction of the urinary tract leads to urinary stasis, urine supersaturation and stone formation
  • Vesicoureteral reflux