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We aim to offer the most effective and least invasive treatment options for patients with vascular anomalies. Vascular anomalies are classified into unique groups. These include vascular "tumors" and vascular malformations, as well as those associated with syndromes.


Vascular Tumors

  • Infantile hemangiomas are a common type of birthmark made of blood vessels. Most hemangiomas are not visible at birth. When they do appear, they often look like a small bruise, or red bump, which can grow in the first several months of life. Often they will then regress, or decrease in size over the first several years of a child’s life. Beta-blockers are FDA-approved, first-line therapy for complicated, growing infantile hemangiomas.
  • Congenital hemangiomas are vascular lesions that are present and fully grown at birth. These are different from infantile hemangiomas by history, and do not respond to the same treatment options.
  • PHACE syndrome is the association of a large hemangioma in the head or face which can be associated with one or more other abnormalities.

Vascular Malformations

  • Arteriovenous malformations are composed of arteries connected directly to veins, without the presence of small capillaries, which normally connect the two together. This abnormal tangle of large vessels causes very rapid blood flow and can lead to complications including bleeding.
  • Venous malformations consist of malformed veins that do not work properly and will stretch or enlarge over time. They can become painful.
  • Lymphatic malformations occur when the lymphatic system does not form properly. Extra fluid can collect in the body, leading to localized or diffuse areas of swelling in the tissues.
  • A capillary malformation, most commonly referred to as a port-wine stain, is a kind of birthmark that looks like a flat, red-pink stain on the skin.
  • Combined vascular malformations are congenital and involve two or more types of vessel abnormalities

Vascular Anomaly Syndromes

  • PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Syndrome (PROS): These are disorders characterized by genetic changes in a gene called PIK3CA, which can lead to overgrowth of soft tissues.
  • Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS): Capillary malformation, tissue overgrowth, including differences in limb lengths and malformations of underlying blood vessels.
  • CLOVES Syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by overgrowth of fatty tissue at birth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi and spinal/skeletal abnormalities or scoliosis.
  • Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation Syndrome (MCAP): This syndrome is characterized by a large head, capillary malformations and overgrowth of selected tissues.

RASA1-Related Syndromes

  • Parkes-Weber Syndrome is a condition characterized by limb overgrowth, capillary malformations (port-wine stains) and diffuse arteriovenous malformations or fistulas. It can affect the arms or legs. Long term, the disease can be associated with heart failure due to the shunt of blood from arteries to veins.
  • Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) can present with isolated capillary malformations, some of which may have underlying arteriovenous malformations.