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U.S. News and World Report: America's Best Hospitals, Urology, 2012-13

 

Fluids

For Patients

If you suspect you have stones, visit your primary care provider or urologist.

If you've been diagnosed with stones and would like to be seen in the Metabolic Stone Clinic, please call (608) 263-4757.

A lack of fluids contributes to an increased risk for any type of kidney stone. Two liters (quarts) of urine output in a 24-hour period is considered a minimum for stone prevention for most individuals. A better goal is two and one-half to three liters or more of urine per day, every day.
 
Because some body water is lost through our skin, especially in hot weather or during physically strenuous activities, we need to ingest more fluids than we can expect to excrete as urine. In order to put out at least two liters of urine per day, for example, two and one-half liters or more must be consumed. In order to put out three liters of urine per day, at least three and one-half liters of fluids should be consumed. It is important to distribute fluid intake throughout the day, including at bedtime, for maximum stone prevention.

Urine is formed in the kidneys throughout the day and night. Keeping the urine that is produced as dilute as possible is the key to avoiding urine supersaturation and stone formation. Any type of beverage will count toward your fluid intake. This includes water, juice, milk, tea (provided you are not advised to reduce your oxalate intake), coffee, soda and any other beverage. It is best to avoid high-sugar, high-caloric beverages and to steer toward water and reduced-calorie fruit juices and sodas. Tomato and vegetable juices should be reduced-sodium in order to avoid excessive sodium intake.