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U.S. News and World Report: America's Best Hospitals, Urology, 2014-2015

 

Disease-related Contributors to Kidney Stones

Refer to the table below to learn of some of the major diseases associated with kidney stones. While not every person with one of the conditions listed gets kidney stones, those with any of the conditions may benefit from stone prevention strategies.
 
Disease/condition
Stone type
Mechanism
Hypercalcemia
Calcium
Results in hypercalciuria
Hyperthyroidism
Calcium
Causes excessive loss of calcium from bone, which results in hypercalciuria
Hyperparathyroidism
Calcium
May result in hypercalciuria
Sarcoidosis
Calcium
Causes excessive absorption of calcium in the GI tract, resulting in hypercalciuria
Sjogrens syndrome
Calcium
May cause renal tubular acidosis, which decreases the amount of citrate (a stone inhibitor) in the urine
Crohns and other bowel disease, especially those accompanied by malabsorption
Calcium, uric acid
May cause excessive absorption of oxalate in the GI tract (leading to hyperoxalauria); metabolic acidosis (leading to hypocitraturia); excessive fluid losses from diarrhea (leading to dehydration and supersaturation of stone constituents in urine)
Insulin resistance
Calcium, uric acid
Leads to mishandling of ammonia, which acidifies the urine and promotes stones
Acquired renal tubular acidosis
Calcium
Induces hypocitraturia
Gout
Uric acid
Promotes hyperuricosuria (excessive amount of uric acid in the urine)
Osteoporosis/osteopenia
Calcium
Calcium release from bone results in hypercalciuria
Obesity/overweight
Calcium, uric acid
May promote hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria
Hypertension
Calcium, uric acid
May promote hyperuricosuria and hypercalciuria
Anorexia/bulimia
Calcium, uric acid
Excessive and/or rapid weight loss may result in hyperuricosuria, bone loss leading to hypercalciuria and muscle tissue and potassium losses, leading to acid urine
Chronic urinary tract infections
Struvite, calcium phosphate
Certain types of bacteria, if they overcolonize the urinary tract, cause urinary pH to rise (become alkaline) and cause a buildup of ammonium in the urine
Malignancy
Calcium
Some cancers cause hypercalemia, which results in hypercalciuria
Neurogenic disorders that cause urine retention in kidney or bladder
Struvite, calcium phospate
May prevent urine from being eliminated, causing bacterial colonization and leading to alkaline urine and high ammonium
Being bedridden
Calcium
Increases calcium release from bone, resulting in hypercalciuria