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Male Infertility: Conditions, Causes and Treatments

Generations Fertility Care doctors work with you to determine the underlying cause and offer the most effective treatment options for male infertility.


A common misperception is that infertility is largely a female problem. In truth, approximately 50 percent of cases involve male factor infertility as well. Identifying any underlying conditions that may affect a man's fertility prior to initiating any treatments can help spare couples the distress of attempting ineffective treatments.


Frequently Asked Questions


Dr. Dan Williams on Male Infertility



Causes of Male Infertility


There are many possible causes of male factor infertility, including:

Testing and Evaluation of Male Fertility


There are many possible causes of male infertility and can range from environmental factors to physical issues. The main goal of testing and evaluation is to identify potentially correctible conditions, irreversible conditions and the most appropriate methods for managing those conditions. Possible testing and evaluation procedures may include:

  • Physical examination by Urologist or Male Fertility Specialist
  • Review of the man's health history, including:
    • Sexual history
    • Pregnancy history (any previous children)
    • Childhood diseases
    • Medical or surgical problems
    • Gonadotoxins (environmental toxins that might affect sperm development, including cigarette smoke, agricultural or other chemical agents)
  • Semen analysis
  • Blood hormone testing
  • Sperm DNA fragmentation analysis
  • Ultrasound
  • Genetic testing

Treatments for Male Infertility


Treatment options vary and can include non-invasive procedures as well as more advanced treatments. Among the treatments available through UW Health's fertility program are:

  • Microsurgical varicocelectomy
  • Vasectomy reversal
  • Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TURED)
  • Sperm retrieval
    • Testicular Sperm Extraction/Aspiration (TESE/TESA)
    • Microscopic Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)
    • Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) 
    • Electroejaculation (EEJ)

Internet Resources


Society for the Study of Male Reproduction