First Aid for Chemical Burns
Note: If a chemical has been swallowed that may be a poison or may cause burning in the throat and esophagus, call your local Poison Control Center or the National Poison Control Hotline (1-800-222-1222) immediately for information on treatment. When you call the Poison Control Center, have the chemical container with you, so you can read the content label to the Poison Control staff member. The Poison Control Center can help determine what steps to take next.
Most chemical burns of the skin are treated first by rinsing (flushing) the chemical off your body with a large amount of room temperature water, but not all chemicals are treated this way. It is important to treat the burn correctly to avoid further complications.
Chemical burns rinsed with water
- Flush the area for at least 20 minutes.
- Do not use a hard spray of water, because it can damage the burned area.
- Have the person with the burn remove the chemical substance if he or she is able.
- Put on gloves to protect yourself from the chemical, if you need to remove it.
- As you flush the area, take off any clothing or jewelry that has the chemical on it.
- If the area still has a burning sensation after 20 minutes, flush the area again with flowing water for 10 to 15 minutes.
Chemical burns not rinsed with water
Some chemical burns are made worse if rinsed (flushed) with water.
- Carbolic acid or phenol does not mix with water, so use isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol first to flush the chemical off the skin and then flush with water. If alcohol is not available, flush with a large amount of water. Do not flush the eye with alcohol.
- Sulfuric acid is flushed with a mild, soapy solution if the burns are not severe. Sulfuric acid feels hot when water is added to the acid, but it is better to flush the area and not leave the acid on the skin.
- Hydrofluoric acid is flushed with a bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) solution. (Use a small amount of water to make solution.) Then flush with a large amount of water. Burns from this acid may not show at first, so flush the area even if a burn is not seen. Do not flush the eye with a baking soda solution.
- Dry powders, such as dry lime, are brushed away first, because adding water can make a liquid that burns. After the powder is brushed away, flush with water for 20 minutes.
- Metal compounds are covered with mineral oil.
The most important first aid for a chemical in the eye is to immediately flush the substance out with large amounts of water to reduce the chance of serious eye damage. For any chemical burn to the eye, see the topic Burns to the Eye.
If evaluation by your doctor is necessary, take the chemical container with you.
Primary Medical Reviewer William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer H. Michael O'Connor, MD - Emergency Medicine
Current as ofJune 4, 2014
Current as of: June 4, 2014
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