Anemia, Hemolytic, Cold Antibody
National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
It is possible that the main title of the report Anemia, Hemolytic, Cold Antibody is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Synonyms Back to top
- Anemia, Autoimmune Hemolytic
- Cold Agglutinin Disease
- Cold Antibody Disease
Disorder Subdivisions Back to top
General Discussion Back to top
Cold antibody hemolytic anemia (CAHA) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by the premature destruction of red blood cells (rbcs) by the body's natural defenses against invading organisms (antibodies). Normally, the red blood cells have a life span of approximately 120 days before they are destroyed by the spleen. In individuals with CAHA, the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely and the rate of production of new cells in the bone marrow can no longer compensate for their loss. The severity of the anemia is determined by the length of time that the red blood cells survive and by the rate at which the bone marrow continues to create new red blood cell production.
The immune hemolytic anemias are classified according to the optimal temperature at which the antibodies act to destroy red blood cells. As their names imply, cold antibody hemolytic anemia occurs at temperatures of approximately 0 to 10 degrees centigrade, while warm antibody hemolytic anemia (WAHA) occurs at temperatures of 37 degrees centigrade or higher.
In most cases, CAHA is a primary disorder that typically becomes apparent at 50 to 60 years of age. Symptoms and findings associated with the disorder may include fatigue; low levels of circulating red blood cells (anemia); persistent yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eyes (jaundice); and/or sweating and coldness of the fingers and/or toes (digits) and uneven bluish or reddish discoloration of the skin of the digits, ankles, and wrists (acrocyanosis or Raynauds sign).
Cold antibody hemolytic anemia may also occur as a secondary disorder in association with a number of different underlying disorders such as certain infectious diseases (e.g., mycoplasma infection, mumps, cytomegalovirus, infectious mononucleosis), immunoproliferative diseases (e.g., non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia), or connective tissue disorders (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus). Although CAHA is known to be an autoimmune disorder, its exact underlying cause is not fully understood.
Resources Back to top
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, Inc.
22100 Gratiot Ave.
East Detroit, MI 48021
NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
P.O. Box 30105
Bethesda, MD 20892-0105
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Cold Agglutinin Disease E-Support
c/o Betty Usdan
146 Greens Rd.
Hollywood, FL 33021
For a Complete Report Back to top
This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".
The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.
It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report
This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.
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Last Updated: 3/27/2008
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